Meg Bowman and Alyson Roux

2018 IAEDP Presentation

Seeking the Whole Story: Integrating Functional Medicine in ED Nutrition Therapy

References and Central Images (all images © Alyson Roux & Meg Bowman)



1. Amani, R., Saeidi, S., Nazari, Z., & Nematpour, S. (2010). Correlation between dietary zinc intakes and its serum levels with depression scales in young female students. Biological Trace Element Research, 137(2), 150–158.

2. Amorim-Barbosa, T., Serrão, M. P., Brandão, I., & Vieira-Coelho, M. A. (2016). Catechol-O-methyltransferase activity in erythrocytes from patients with eating disorders. Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD, 21(2), 221–227.

3. Avsar, O., Kuskucu, A., Sancak, S., & Genc, E. (2017). Are dopaminergic genotypes risk factors for eating behavior and obesity in adults? Neuroscience Letters, 654, 28–32.

4. Bartlett, B. A., Iverson, K. M., & Mitchell, K. S. (2017). Intimate partner violence and disordered eating among male and female veterans. Psychiatry Research, 260, 98–104.

5. Basso, M. S., Zanna, V., Panetta, F., Caramadre, A. M., Ferretti, F., Ottino, S., & Diamanti, A. (2013). Is the screening for celiac disease useful in anorexia nervosa? European Journal of Pediatrics, 172(2), 261–263.

6. Benkelfat, C., Ellenbogen, M. A., Dean, P., Palmour, R. M., & Young, S. N. (1994). Mood-lowering effect of tryptophan depletion. Enhanced susceptibility in young men at genetic risk for major affective disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51(9), 687–697.

7. Bern, E. M., & O’Brien, R. F. (2013). Is it an eating disorder, gastrointestinal disorder, or both? Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 25(4), 463–470.

8. Bielenberg, J. (1991). [Folic acid and vitamin deficiency caused by oral contraceptives]. Medizinische Monatsschrift Fur Pharmazeuten, 14(8), 244–247.

9. Brunner, J., Parhofer, K. G., Schwandt, P., & Bronisch, T. (2001). [Cholesterol, omega-3 fatty acids, and suicide risk: empirical evidence and pathophysiological hypotheses]. Fortschritte Der Neurologie-Psychiatrie, 69(10), 460–467.

10. Clarke, G., Stilling, R. M., Kennedy, P. J., Stanton, C., Cryan, J. F., & Dinan, T. G. (2014). Minireview: Gut microbiota: the neglected endocrine organ. Molecular Endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.), 28(8), 1221–1238.

11. David, L. A., Maurice, C. F., Carmody, R. N., Gootenberg, D. B., Button, J. E., Wolfe, B. E., … Turnbaugh, P. J. (2014). Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome. Nature, 505(7484), 559–563.

12. Dennett, C. (2016). Nutrition-focused physical exams. Today's Dietitian Vol. 18 No. 2 P. 36 retrieved from

13. Donofry, S. D., Roecklein, K. A., Wildes, J. E., Miller, M. A., Flory, J. D., & Manuck, S. B. (2014a). COMT met allele differentially predicts risk versus severity of aberrant eating in a large community sample. Psychiatry Research, 220(1–2), 513–518.

14. Donofry, S. D., Roecklein, K. A., Wildes, J. E., Miller, M. A., Flory, J. D., & Manuck, S. B. (2014b). COMT met allele differentially predicts risk versus severity of aberrant eating in a large community sample. Psychiatry Research, 220(1–2), 513–518.

15. Ehrlich, S., Franke, L., Schneider, N., Salbach-Andrae, H., Schott, R., Craciun, E. M., … Lehmkuhl, U. (2009). Aromatic amino acids in weight-recovered females with anorexia nervosa. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 42(2), 166–172.

16. Foster, J. A., Rinaman, L., & Cryan, J. F. (2017). Stress & the gut-brain axis: Regulation by the microbiome. Neurobiology of Stress, 7, 124–136.

17. Fuemmeler, B. F., Dedert, E., McClernon, F. J., & Beckham, J. C. (2009). Adverse childhood events are associated with obesity and disordered eating: Results from a U.S. population-based survey of young adults. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22(4), 329–333.

18. Galland, L. (2005). Patient-centered care: Antecedents, triggers, and mediators. In Textbook of functional medicine (pp 78-92). Institute for Functional Medicine.

19. Gröber, U., Schmidt, J., & Kisters, K. (2015). Magnesium in Prevention and Therapy. Nutrients, 7(9), 8199–8226.

20. Hasler, W. L., Wilson, L. A., Parkman, H. P., Nguyen, L., Abell, T. L., Koch, K. L., … NIDDK Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium (GpCRC). (2011). Bloating in gastroparesis: severity, impact, and associated factors. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 106(8), 1492–1502.

21. Higdon, Jane. “Vitamin B6.” Linus Pauling Institute. Retrieved from

22. Holman, R. T., Adams, C. E., Nelson, R. A., Grater, S. J., Jaskiewicz, J. A., Johnson, S. B., & Erdman, J. W. (1995). Patients with anorexia nervosa demonstrate deficiencies of selected essential fatty acids, compensatory changes in nonessential fatty acids and decreased fluidity of plasma lipids. The Journal of Nutrition, 125(4), 901–907.

23. Kedar, A., Nikitina, Y., Henry, O. R., Abell, K. B., Vedanarayanan, V., Griswold, M. E., … Abell, T. L. (2013). Gastric dysmotility and low serum vitamin D levels in patients with gastroparesis. Hormone and Metabolic Research = Hormon- Und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones Et Metabolisme, 45(1), 47–53.

24. Kleiman, S. C., Watson, H. J., Bulik-Sullivan, E. C., Huh, E. Y., Tarantino, L. M., Bulik, C. M., & Carroll, I. M. (2015). The Intestinal Microbiota in Acute Anorexia Nervosa and During Renourishment: Relationship to Depression, Anxiety, and Eating Disorder Psychopathology. Psychosomatic Medicine, 77(9), 969–981.

25. Lam, Y. Y., Maguire, S., Palacios, T., & Caterson, I. D. (2017). Are the Gut Bacteria Telling Us to Eat or Not to Eat? Reviewing the Role of Gut Microbiota in the Etiology, Disease Progression and Treatment of Eating Disorders. Nutrients, 9(6), 602.

26. Leffler, D. A., Dennis, M., Edwards George, J. B., & Kelly, C. P. (2007). The interaction between eating disorders and celiac disease: an exploration of 10 cases. European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 19(3), 251–255.

27. Mazzoli, R., & Pessione, E. (2016). The Neuro-endocrinological Role of Microbial Glutamate and GABA Signaling. Frontiers in Microbiology, 7, 1934.

28. McNally, L., Bhagwagar, Z., & Hannestad, J. (2008). Inflammation, glutamate, and glia in depression: a literature review. CNS Spectrums, 13(6), 501–510.

29. “Micronutrient Information Center.” (2018) Linus Pauling Institute. Retrieved


30. Mikołajczyk, E., Grzywacz, A., & Samochowiec, J. (2010). The association of catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype with the phenotype of women with eating disorders. Brain Research, 1307, 142–148.

31. Miller, H. L., Delgado, P. L., Salomon, R. M., Berman, R., Krystal, J. H., Heninger, G. R., & Charney, D. S. (1996). Clinical and biochemical effects of catecholamine depletion on antidepressant-induced remission of depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53(2), 117–128.

32. Nagatsu, T. (2006). The catecholamine system in health and disease —Relation to tyrosine 3-monooxygenase and other catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes—. Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences, 82(10), 388–415. Retrieved from

33. Nutrition-Focused Physical Exams - Today’s Dietitian Magazine. (n.d.). Retrieved January 21, 2018, from

34. Oxenkrug, G. (2013). Serotonin – kynurenine hypothesis of depression: historical overview and recent developments. Current Drug Targets, 14(5), 514–521.

35. Palmisano, G. L., Innamorati, M., & Vanderlinden, J. (n.d.). Life adverse experiences in relation with obesity and binge eating disorder: A systematic review. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 5(1), 11–31.

36. Preston, J. D., Reynolds, L. J., & Pearson, K. J. (2018). Developmental Origins of Health Span and Life Span: A Mini-Review. Gerontology.

37. Racine, S. E., VanHuysse, J. L., Keel, P. K., Burt, S. A., Neale, M. C., Boker, S., & Klump, K. L. (2017). Eating disorder-specific risk factors moderate the relationship between negative urgency and binge eating: A behavioral genetic investigation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 126(5), 481–494.

38. Ruhé, H. G., Mason, N. S., & Schene, A. H. (2007). Mood is indirectly related to serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine levels in humans: a meta-analysis of monoamine depletion studies. Molecular Psychiatry, 12(4), 331–359.

39. Réus, G. Z., Jansen, K., Titus, S., Carvalho, A. F., Gabbay, V., & Quevedo, J. (2015). Kynurenine pathway dysfunction in the pathophysiology and treatment of depression: evidences from animal and human studies. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 68, 316–328.

40. Sampson, T. R., & Mazmanian, S. K. (2015). Control of brain development, function, and behavior by the microbiome. Cell Host & Microbe, 17(5), 565–576.

41. Schatz, R. A., Zhang, Q., Lodhia, N., Shuster, J., Toskes, P. P., & Moshiree, B. (2015). Predisposing factors for positive D-Xylose breath test for evaluation of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: A retrospective study of 932 patients. World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG, 21(15), 4574–4582.

42. Scott-Van Zeeland, A. A., Bloss, C. S., Tewhey, R., Bansal, V., Torkamani, A., Libiger, O., … Schork, N. J. (2014). Evidence for the role of EPHX2 gene variants in anorexia nervosa. Molecular Psychiatry, 19(6), 724–732.

43. Shastry, B. S. (2009). SNPs: impact on gene function and phenotype. Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.), 578, 3–22.

44. Shih, P. B., & Woodside, D. B. (2016). Contemporary views on the genetics of anorexia nervosa. European Neuropsychopharmacology: The Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology, 26(4), 663–673.

45. Sleiman, S. F., Henry, J., Al-Haddad, R., El Hayek, L., Abou Haidar, E., Stringer, T., … Chao, M. V. (2016). Exercise promotes the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) through the action of the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate. ELife, 5.

46. Sublette, M. E., Hibbeln, J. R., Galfalvy, H., Oquendo, M. A., & Mann, J. J. (2006). Omega-3 polyunsaturated essential fatty acid status as a predictor of future suicide risk. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(6), 1100–1102.

47. Title 54.1. Professions and Occupations. Chapter 27.1. Dietitians and Nutritionists. § 54.1-2731. (1995, c. 391; 2016, c. 91.) Commonwealth of Virginia. Retrieved from

48. Wang, S., Song, J., Yang, Y., Chawla, N. V., Ma, J., & Wang, H. (2017). Rs12970134 near MC4R is associated with appetite and beverage intake in overweight and obese children: A family-based association study in Chinese population. PloS One, 12(5), e0177983.

49. Weatherby, D., Ferguson, S., (2002) Blood chemistry and CBC analysis- Clinical laboratory testing form a functional perspective. Jacksonville, OR. Bear Mountain Publishing.

50. Weinhold, B. (2006). Epigenetics: The Science of Change. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(3), A160–A167. Retrieved from

51. Yano, J. M., Yu, K., Donaldson, G. P., Shastri, G. G., Ann, P., Ma, L., … Hsiao, E. Y. (2015). Indigenous bacteria from the gut microbiota regulate host serotonin biosynthesis. Cell, 161(2), 264–276.

52. Yilmaz, Z., Hardaway, J. A., & Bulik, C. M. (2015a). Genetics and Epigenetics of Eating Disorders. Advances in Genomics and Genetics, 5, 131–150.